وهو احتكار البضائع سواء الجافة وغيرها وخضراوات يحتكرها المحتكر من أجل ارتفاع الأسعار دراسة فقيه مقارنة. , (6-2019)
التعزير الأخذ بالمال في الفقه الإسلامي
وهو عقوبة الجاني بدل من القصاص منه ويؤخذ المال عوضاً عن ذلك دراسة فقهية مقارنة. , (1-2019)
استثمار الأراضي الوقفية بعد الحكر.
وهو عبارة عن الاستفادة من الأراضي الحبسية واستثمارها كانت عقارية أو استثمارية بعد الحبس دراسة فقهية مقارنة. , (1-2019)
Beyond the Garamantes : the early development of Saharan oases
Work over the last twenty years in the southern Libyan desert has shed new light on the
ancient civilisation of the Garamantes and the origin of oases in Central Sahara. The
earliest Garamantian sites associated with oasis agriculture date to the early 1st millennium
BCE, with the heyday of their kingdom achieved in the early centuries CE. Their
largest centres merit the appellation ‘urban’ and their society appears to have been
one of the first Saharan states. This paper presents a summary of recent work on the
Garamantes, but also a wider survey of what is known of oasis origins in the Sahara,
including new discoveries in southern Morocco. The analysis is supported by hundreds
of new radiocarbon dates. The scale and extent of pre-Islamic oasis development can
now be shown to have been quite extensive, creating a new paradigm for the early history
of the Sahara.
Keywords : Oases, Radiocarbon Dating, Garamantes, Sahara David Mattingly, Martin Sterry, Muftah Al-Haddad, Youssef Bokbot, (10-2018)
RURAL SETTLEMENT AND ECONOMIC ACTIVITY: OLIVE OIL, WINE AND AMPHORAE PRODUCTION ON THE TARHUNA PLATEAU DURING THE ROMAN PERIOD
Rural Settlement and Economic Activity by Mftah Ahmed
This title is a key new addition to literature on the rural economy of Tripolitania during Antiquity. The chapters explore the geography and climate of the area and present the results of the author’s archaeological survey.
Settlement types and their constructions are examined, followed by a detailed analysis of olive oil presses and their production capacity. Finally, amphora production sites are discussed, with examples of the types of amphora and their capacities.
The conclusions give an overview of the rural economy of Tarhuna during the Roman period, focusing on economic aspects and offering an astonishing new picture of this highly productive landscape. Mftah Ahmed, (10-2018)